The Lightning Network is not the only possible solution to a payment system and Layer-1 (e.g. Bitcoin) scaling. There are alternative technologies to Lightning that try to achieve similar goals (e.g. a payment system, scaling) and are competing with the Lightning Network.
Lightning Alternatives, Lightning Competition
- On-chain scaling through large blocks, as planned e.g. for Bitcoin Unlimited and the 1-Gigabyte Block project
- StarkPay, When Lightning STARKs, At the moment StarkPay is not suitable for Bitcoin, but for other Layer-1 blockchains that provide sufficient online scripting like Ethereum.